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A gas flarealternatively known as a flare stackis a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refinerieschemical plants and natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wellsgas wellsoffshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
In industrial plants, flare stacks are primarily used for burning off flammable gas released by pressure relief valves during unplanned over-pressuring of plant equipment. Gas flaring at many oil and gas production sites protects against the dangers of over-pressuring industrial plant equipment. An example of the consequences of failure to flare escaping gas was evident in the Bhopal disaster when a flare tower was broken and couldn't flare escaping methyl isocyanate gas The gas had been in an overpressured tank and released by a safety valvewhich resulted in its release into the surrounding area  [ circular reference ].
When petroleum crude oil is extracted and produced from oil wellsraw natural gas associated with the oil is brought to the surface as well. Especially in areas of the world lacking pipelines and other gas transportation infrastructure, vast amounts of such associated gas are commonly flared as waste or unusable gas.
The flaring of associated gas may occur at the top of a vertical flare stack as in the adjacent photo or it may occur in a ground-level flare in an earthen pit. Preferably, associated gas is reinjected into the reservoir, which saves it for future use while maintaining higher well pressure and crude oil producibility.
When industrial plant equipment items are over-pressured, the pressure relief valve is an essential safety device that automatically release gases and sometimes liquids. Those pressure relief valves are required by industrial design codes and standards as well as by law.
The released gases and liquids are routed through large piping systems called flare headers to a vertical elevated flare. The released gases are burned as they exit the flare stacks. The size and brightness of the resulting flame depends upon the flammable material's flow rate in joules per hour or btu per hour.
Most industrial plant flares have a Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) separator also known as a knockout Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) upstream of the flare to remove any large amounts of liquid that may accompany the relieved gases. Steam is very often injected into the flame to reduce the formation of black smoke. When too much steam is added, Easy Winners - Prof.
John W. (Knocky) Parker* - Scott Joplins Original Ragtime Compositions condition known as "over steaming" can occur resulting in reduced combustion efficiency and higher emissions. To keep the flare system functional, a small amount of gas is continuously burned, like a pilot light, so that the system is always ready for its primary purpose as an over-pressure safety system.
The adjacent flow diagram depicts the typical components of an overall industrial flare stack system:   . Improperly operated flares may emit methane and other volatile organic compounds as well as sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds, which are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory problems. Other emissions from improperly operated flares may include, aromatic hydrocarbons benzenetoluenexylenes and benzo a pyrenewhich are known to be carcinogenic.
Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) can affect wildlife by attracting birds and insects to the flame. Approximately 7, migrating songbirds were attracted to and killed by the flare at the liquefied natural gas terminal in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on September 13, A brochure published by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity describing the Global Taxonomy Initiative describes a situation where " a taxonomist working in a tropical forest noticed that a gas flare at an oil refinery was attracting and killing hundreds of these [hawk or sphinx] moths.
Over the course of the months and years that the refinery was running a vast number of moths must have been killed, suggesting that plants could not be pollinated over a large area of forest ". That Did Not Ask For - Various - Kinda Sorta Music 2015 Compilation equivalent to about 25 percent of the annual natural gas consumption in the United States or about 30 per cent of the annual gas consumption in the European Union.
Also as of the end of10 countries accounted for 72 per cent of the flaring, and twenty for 86 per cent. That Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) of flaring and burning of associated gas from oil drilling sites is a significant source of carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions.
That may seem to be insignificant, but in perspective it is more than half of the Certified Emissions Reductions a type of Dalia Dalužė - Žvaigždžių Kvartetas - Žvaigždžių Valanda credits that have been issued under the rules and mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol as of June The Obama administration implemented rules curbing flaring, and subsequently the Trump administration attempted to delay implementation of the rules.
In October a federal magistrate judge vacated the Department of Interior's move to delay implementation. Methane 's estimated global warming potential is 34 times greater than that of CO 2. An important source of anthropogenic methane comes from the treatment and storage of organic waste material including waste wateranimal waste and landfill.
As a result, gas flares a standard component of an installation for controlling the production of biogas. Gas flares on biogas collection Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) are used if the gas production rates are not sufficient to warrant use in any industrial process.
However, on a plant where the gas production rate is sufficient for direct use in an industrial process that could be classified as part of the circular economyand that may include the generation of electricitythe production of natural gas quality biogas for vehicle fuel  or for heating in buildings, drying Refuse Derived Fuel or leachate treatment, gas flares are used as a back-up system during down-time for maintenance or breakdown of generation equipment.
In this latter case, generation of biogas cannot normally be interrupted and a gas flare is employed to maintain the internal pressure on the biological process.
There Burning Down The Farm - Various - Country Mix USA (File) two types of gas flare used for controlling biogas, open or enclosed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Flare disambiguation.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May Environmental Protection Agency report, dated September Kayode Coker Gulf Professional Publishing. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Beychok Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion Fourth ed. Petroleum Refining in Nontechnical Language. Tulsa, OK: PennWell.
Excellent source of information about flare stack pilot flames and their ignition systems. From the website of the World Bank. Retrieved December 11, The New York Times. Retrieved Eniscuola Energy and Environment. Retrieved 23 June US EPA. Banerjee K. N Flare gas systems pocket handbook.
Categories : Fuels Oil refining Components of a chemical plant Air pollution Air pollution control systems Volatile organic compound abatement Gas technologies. Hidden categories: CS1 maint: extra text: authors list All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from December Articles with permanently dead external links All articles lacking reliable references Empty - Never Get To You lacking reliable references from May Wikipedia articles in need of updating from May All Wikipedia articles in need of updating.
World Bank video about reducing flaring. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gas flare.